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How to declare a vector of atomic in C++
在 C++ 中,如何声明原子的矢量

Possible Duplicate:
Undefined Symbol ___gxx_personality_v0 on link

I am intending to declare a vector of atomic variables to be used as counters in a multithreaded programme. Here is what I tried:

#include <atomic>
#include <vector>
int main(void)
{
  std::vector<std::atomic<int>> v_a;
  std::atomic<int> a_i(1);
  v_a.push_back(a_i);
  return 0;
}

And this is the annoyingly verbose error message of gcc 4.6.3:

In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.6/x86_64-linux-gnu/./bits/c++allocator.h:34:0,
             from /usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/allocator.h:48,
             from /usr/include/c++/4.6/vector:62,
             from test_atomic_vec.h:2,
             from test_atomic_vec.cc:1:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/ext/new_allocator.h: In member function ‘void __gnu_cxx::new_allocator<_Tp>::construct(__gnu_cxx::new_allocator<_Tp>::pointer, const _Tp&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, __gnu_cxx::new_allocator<_Tp>::pointer = std::atomic<int>*]’:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_vector.h:830:6:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::push_back(const value_type&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::value_type = std::atomic<int>]’
test_atomic_vec.cc:10:20:   instantiated from here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/ext/new_allocator.h:108:9: error: use of deleted function ‘std::atomic<int>::atomic(const std::atomic<int>&)’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/atomic:538:7: error: declared here
In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.6/vector:70:0,
             from test_atomic_vec.h:2,
             from test_atomic_vec.cc:1:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/vector.tcc: In member function ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::_M_insert_aux(std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator, _Args&& ...) [with _Args = {const std::atomic<int>&}, _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator = __gnu_cxx::__normal_iterator<std::atomic<int>*, std::vector<std::atomic<int> > >, typename std::_Vector_base<_Tp, _Alloc>::_Tp_alloc_type::pointer = std::atomic<int>*]’:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_vector.h:834:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::push_back(const value_type&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::value_type = std::atomic<int>]’
test_atomic_vec.cc:10:20:   instantiated from here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/vector.tcc:319:4: error: use of deleted function ‘std::atomic<int>::atomic(const std::atomic<int>&)’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/atomic:538:7: error: declared here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_vector.h:834:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::push_back(const value_type&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::value_type = std::atomic<int>]’
test_atomic_vec.cc:10:20:   instantiated from here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/vector.tcc:319:4: error: use of deleted function ‘std::atomic<int>& std::atomic<int>::operator=(const std::atomic<int>&)’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/atomic:539:15: error: declared here
In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.6/x86_64-linux-gnu/./bits/c++allocator.h:34:0,
             from /usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/allocator.h:48,
             from /usr/include/c++/4.6/vector:62,
             from test_atomic_vec.h:2,
             from test_atomic_vec.cc:1:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/ext/new_allocator.h: In member function ‘void __gnu_cxx::new_allocator<_Tp>::construct(__gnu_cxx::new_allocator<_Tp>::pointer, _Args&& ...) [with _Args = {std::atomic<int>}, _Tp = std::atomic<int>, __gnu_cxx::new_allocator<_Tp>::pointer = std::atomic<int>*]’:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/vector.tcc:306:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::_M_insert_aux(std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator, _Args&& ...) [with _Args = {const std::atomic<int>&}, _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator = __gnu_cxx::__normal_iterator<std::atomic<int>*, std::vector<std::atomic<int> > >, typename std::_Vector_base<_Tp, _Alloc>::_Tp_alloc_type::pointer = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_vector.h:834:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::push_back(const value_type&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::value_type = std::atomic<int>]’
test_atomic_vec.cc:10:20:   instantiated from here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/ext/new_allocator.h:114:4: error: use of deleted function ‘std::atomic<int>::atomic(const std::atomic<int>&)’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/atomic:538:7: error: declared here
In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.6/vector:61:0,
             from test_atomic_vec.h:2,
             from test_atomic_vec.cc:1:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_algobase.h: In static member function ‘static _BI2 std::__copy_move_backward<true, false, std::random_access_iterator_tag>::__copy_move_b(_BI1, _BI1, _BI2) [with _BI1 = std::atomic<int>*, _BI2 = std::atomic<int>*]’:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_algobase.h:581:18:   instantiated from ‘_BI2 std::__copy_move_backward_a(_BI1, _BI1, _BI2) [with bool _IsMove = true, _BI1 = std::atomic<int>*, _BI2 = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_algobase.h:590:34:   instantiated from ‘_BI2 std::__copy_move_backward_a2(_BI1, _BI1, _BI2) [with bool _IsMove = true, _BI1 = std::atomic<int>*, _BI2 = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_algobase.h:661:15:   instantiated from ‘_BI2 std::move_backward(_BI1, _BI1, _BI2) [with _BI1 = std::atomic<int>*, _BI2 = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/vector.tcc:313:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::_M_insert_aux(std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator, _Args&& ...) [with _Args = {const std::atomic<int>&}, _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator = __gnu_cxx::__normal_iterator<std::atomic<int>*, std::vector<std::atomic<int> > >, typename std::_Vector_base<_Tp, _Alloc>::_Tp_alloc_type::pointer = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_vector.h:834:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::push_back(const value_type&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::value_type = std::atomic<int>]’
test_atomic_vec.cc:10:20:   instantiated from here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_algobase.h:546:6: error: use of deleted function ‘std::atomic<int>& std::atomic<int>::operator=(const std::atomic<int>&)’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/atomic:539:15: error: declared here
In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.6/vector:63:0,
             from test_atomic_vec.h:2,
             from test_atomic_vec.cc:1:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_construct.h: In function ‘void std::_Construct(_T1*, _Args&& ...) [with _T1 = std::atomic<int>, _Args = {std::atomic<int>}]’:
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_uninitialized.h:77:3:   instantiated from ‘static _ForwardIterator std::__uninitialized_copy<_TrivialValueTypes>::__uninit_copy(_InputIterator, _InputIterator, _ForwardIterator) [with _InputIterator = std::move_iterator<std::atomic<int>*>, _ForwardIterator = std::atomic<int>*, bool _TrivialValueTypes = false]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_uninitialized.h:119:41:   instantiated from ‘_ForwardIterator std::uninitialized_copy(_InputIterator, _InputIterator, _ForwardIterator) [with _InputIterator = std::move_iterator<std::atomic<int>*>, _ForwardIterator = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_uninitialized.h:259:63:   instantiated from ‘_ForwardIterator std::__uninitialized_copy_a(_InputIterator, _InputIterator, _ForwardIterator, std::allocator<_Tp>&) [with _InputIterator = std::move_iterator<std::atomic<int>*>, _ForwardIterator = std::atomic<int>*, _Tp = std::atomic<int>]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_uninitialized.h:269:24:   instantiated from ‘_ForwardIterator std::__uninitialized_move_a(_InputIterator, _InputIterator, _ForwardIterator, _Allocator&) [with _InputIterator = std::atomic<int>*, _ForwardIterator = std::atomic<int>*, _Allocator = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/vector.tcc:343:8:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::_M_insert_aux(std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator, _Args&& ...) [with _Args = {const std::atomic<int>&}, _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::iterator = __gnu_cxx::__normal_iterator<std::atomic<int>*, std::vector<std::atomic<int> > >, typename std::_Vector_base<_Tp, _Alloc>::_Tp_alloc_type::pointer = std::atomic<int>*]’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_vector.h:834:4:   instantiated from ‘void std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::push_back(const value_type&) [with _Tp = std::atomic<int>, _Alloc = std::allocator<std::atomic<int> >, std::vector<_Tp, _Alloc>::value_type = std::atomic<int>]’
test_atomic_vec.cc:10:20:   instantiated from here
/usr/include/c++/4.6/bits/stl_construct.h:76:7: error: use of deleted function ‘std::atomic<int>::atomic(const std::atomic<int>&)’
/usr/include/c++/4.6/atomic:538:7: error: declared here

How do I solve this?

The error disappears when I comment out the line with push_back().

edit:I edited the post... For those of you who saw the first post, the error was embarrassingly that I used gccinstead of g++:

时间:原作者:7个回答

As described in this closely related question that was mentioned in the comments, std::atomic<T>isn't copy-constructible, nor copy-assignable.

Object types that don't have these properties cannot be used as elements of std::vector.

However, it should be possible to create a wrapper around the std::atomic<T>element that is copy-constructible and copy-assignable. It will have to use the load()and store()member functions of std::atomic<T>to provide construction and assignment (this is the idea described by the accepted answer to the question mentioned above):

#include <atomic>
#include <vector>
template <typename T>
struct atomwrapper
{
  std::atomic<T> _a;
  atomwrapper()
    :_a()
  {}
  atomwrapper(const std::atomic<T> &a)
    :_a(a.load())
  {}
  atomwrapper(const atomwrapper &other)
    :_a(other._a.load())
  {}
  atomwrapper &operator=(const atomwrapper &other)
  {
    _a.store(other._a.load());
  }
};
int main(void)
{
  std::vector<atomwrapper<int>> v_a;
  std::atomic<int> a_i(1);
  v_a.push_back(a_i);
  return 0;
}

EDIT: As pointed out correctly by Bo Persson, the copy operation performed by the wrapper is not atomic. It enables you to copy atomic objects, but the copy itself isn't atomic. This means any concurrent access to the atomics must not make use of the copy operation. This implies that operations on the vector itself (e.g. adding or removing elements) must not be performed concurrently.

Example: If, say, one thread modifies the value stored in one of the atomics while another thread adds new elements to the vector, a vector reallocation may occur and the object the first thread modifies may be copied from one place in the vector to another. In that case there would be a data race between the element access performed by the first thread and the copy operation triggered by the second.

原作者:

Looks to me like atomic<T>has no copy constructor. Nor a move constructor, as far as I can tell.

One work around might be to use vector<T>::emplace_back()to construct the atomic in-place in the vector. Alas, I don't have a C++11 compiler on me right now, or I'd go and test it.

原作者:
...